Precious stones / gems or Gemstones is a mineral, rock formed from the results of the geological processes that elements consist of one or several chemical components that have a high selling price, and demand by collectors. Gemstone to be polished before use in jewelry.
The world is not all places contain gemstones. In Indonesia, only a few places that contain gemstones, among others, in the province of Banten with Kalimayanya, in Lampung with rock types and kinds of charming wine chrysolite, on the island of Borneo with Kecubungnya (amethys) and diamonds (diamonds).
Gemstone with names ranging from letters a through z are classified according to the known hardness Mohs Scale of 1 to 10.
The most desirable gems in the world is that in addition to the crystalline type of precious stones such as diamonds, Emerald, Ruby and Sapphire, stones agate type of wine such as Blue Sky, bungur or amethyst from Tanjung Bintang, Lampung currently much in a hurry by the collectors because of its crystalline quality.
There are some things really need to know if our readers want to know more about Precious Stones / Gems. Not infrequently this knowledge only for consumption of businesses, collectors, researchers or minerals. Collected writings of some of these sources may be able to treat more curiosity about the characteristics of the Precious Stones or Gems ....
Crystals. Often we hear dikeseharian. But in the case of rocks, crystals is an object that is homogenous, highly geometric shape and the atoms are arranged in a crystal lattice, because building a crystal lattice is different then its also different. The crystals can form in nature (mineral) or in the laboratory. Crystal means having the form of a rather symmetric (symetris) and that on many sides is limited by a horizontal plane, thus giving the distinctive nature bangin to the mineral in question. Solids are composed of atoms that have a neat said kristalen structure. Crystalline form is divided into six forms, namely:
1) REGULAR, third isometric cube or the same shaft length and intersect perpendicular to each other (example: Stone Diamond, rock salt)
2) tetragonal (four-star) chalkopirit example, rutile, zircon.
3) HEXAGONAL (six-star) apalit example, beryl, corundum.
4) ORTOROMBIS (slice diamonds) berit example, sulfur, topaz.
5) monoclinic (lopsided) casts example, muscovite, augite.
6) triklin (oblique, the three-way) albite example, anortit, Distin.
Minerals. About the definition of a material nature minerals, a lot of reviews and the theory of experts. But in a nutshell is a substance that is contained and there is in nature with a distinctive chemical composition and usually has a clear crystal structure, which sometimes can manifest in a particular geometric shape. The term mineral can have various meanings, depending on the viewing angle and what products. But clearly, the mineral is the content of a substance.
And Gems Precious Stones or a mixture of mineral elements, thus showing the shape or appearance of aesthetically charming. Each mineral has a character that is composed into a crystal structure. And the longer the mineral lasts a long time in the earth, the more beautiful crystals formed.
Hardness Scale (using the Mohs scale): is a physical properties of rocks, which is influenced by the internal layout of the atom. To measure the hardness of minerals used Mohs hardness scale, the following illustrative examples of the scale of violence:
Mohs scale 1: Talk, easily scratched with thumbnail
2 Mohs Scale: GIPS, easily scratched with thumbnail
3 Mohs Scale: Calcite, easily scratched with a knife
4 Mohs Scale: fluorite, easily scratched with a knife
5 Mohs Scale: apatite, can be cut with a knife (rather difficult)
6 Mohs Scale: Orthoclase, can dicuwil thinly with a knife edge section
7 Mohs Scale: Quartz, Emerald, Hematite can scratch the glass
8 Mohs Scale: Topaz, can scratch the glass
9 Mohs Scale: Ruby, sapphire, corundum, may scratching topaz (gemstone ruby, sapphire blue hue / sapphire)
10 Mohs Scale: Diamond, can scratch corundum crystals Shape Diamond is solid besisi eight (octahedron)
In terms of hardness, diamond has the highest hardness, so it is widely used as a drill bit in the oil, so it can penetrate rocks, and oil drilling in the rock layers.
Researchers famous mineral, Mr.K.E. Kinge (1860) convey grouping Precious Stones / Gems are used as jewelry in five classes as follows:
1. Gemstone Class I (Diamond, Ruby, Sapphire, Topaz, Chrysoberyl Cubic Zirconia) Value at home between 8 s / d 10 Mohs Scale
2. Gems class II (Beryl, Zircon, Emerald, Aquamarine, Amethyst, Garnet, Spinel, Quartz) Value Hardware between 7 s / d 8 Mohs Scale
3. Gemstones Class III (lapiz Lazuli, Citrin, Tourqis) is classified as a class gemstone types of precious stones and precious stones responsibility, the value of the rigors of approximately 7 Mohs Scale, consisting mostly of grit acid (kiezelzuur).
4. Responsibility precious stones are stones class IV (Phenakite moonstone Opal Peridot Quartz Beryl), hardness values between 4-7 5 Mohs Scale.
5. Stone Stone grade class V V value of severity and specific gravity levels are very different. Dark color (dull) and mostly somewhat murky, opaque, slightly shiny stone, and the price is very cheap compared to the price of precious stones. In this class, including marble and stone class V are not considered precious stones. An example is the Agate.
Color. What's wrong with the so-called color? Colors can be seen when there is some removal process wavelength, some absorb specific wavelengths of the visible spectrum. Visible spectrum comprised of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. When there is a transfer of the wavelength will affect the energy and color change will occur and if it contains iron jewel usually will look dark colored, while containing aluminum is usually seen brightly colored, but there are also colored minerals remain as water (crystalline) and called Idhiochromatic
Here the color is due to the innate nature there is something of substances in the gem as the source color (pigment agent) which is the minerals, namely: sulfur yellow; malakit green color; azurite blue color; pyrite yellow; magatit black color; augite green color; goethite yellow to brown; hematite red color etc. There is also a mineral that has a variety of colors and termed allokhromatik, this is due to the presence of the dye (pigment), terkurungnya something objects (inclusion) or the presence of a mixture of substances (Impurities). Impurities are elements which is comprised of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and usually not present in pure mixtures, elements which are concentrated in the lower gemstones. Assorted color is very beautiful gemstone and mempersona man so that man gave the title of "noble" on these stones.
Tag : GemstoneID